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A new study on NMN has shown promise in preventing reproductive aging.

According to the study, mice can develop signs of oocyte aging due to a common chemical called phthalate, which is present in many consumer products, but NMN can counteract these effects. These are the key points:

• Phthalate exposure can cause mouse oocytes to age, including a decreased fertilisation rate. 

• NMN can stop phthalate-induced alterations in mitochondrial health in mouse oocytes.

• NMN prevents DNA damage and oocyte cell death brought on by phthalate.

The ability of oocytes (eggs) to get fertilised decreases with age, and the female reproductive system ages more quickly than any other system in the body. Therefore, oocyte age acceleration can increase infertility. According to a study from Nanjing Medical University in China that was published in the journal Cell Proliferation, phthalates may hasten the aging of oocytes, which NMN has the potential to slow down.

 

“These findings revealed a mechanism of BBP-induced toxicity on female reproduction and showed that NMN provides an effective treatment for BBP actions,” state Jiang and colleagues. 

Phthalates are a type of chemical known as a plasticiser that increases the flexibility of polymers. They often appear in shampoo, food packaging, and toys. Because of their estrogenic action, phthalates are considered to be environmental contaminants, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is now examining the dangers associated with them.

A new study on NMN, a substance that has shown promise in preventing reproductive aging

Spindles (green) generally attach systematically to chromosomes (red) during oocyte division (left). On the other hand, phthalate induces spindle disorganization (right), which can cause infertility.

Phthalate Causes Ageing of Oocytes. When compared to untreated control oocytes, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) exposure causes mouse oocytes to exhibit signs of ageing such lower fertilisation rate, abnormal spindle formation, and aneuploidy.

A new study on NMN, a substance that has shown promise in preventing reproductive aging

The researchers fed female mice 1.5 mg/kg of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) for 8 days to assess phthalates’ effects on female reproduction. They then compared the exposed female mice to control female mice. They discovered that the oocytes from mice exposed to BBP exhibited lower fertilization rates, disorganised spindles, aneuploidy, or an aberrant number of chromosomes. These are all characteristics of aging oocytes that might cause infertility.

A new study on NMN, a substance that has shown promise in preventing reproductive aging

The year 2023 | Cell Proliferation | Jiang et al. NMN restores Mitochondrial Health. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are cell-damaging chemicals produced by sick mitochondria, are more prevalent in oocytes exposed to benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) compared to normal mouse oocytes (Control). However, NMN stops the overproduction of ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction.

The scientists discovered that the mitochondria in the oocytes of mice exposed to BBP had decreased voltage, a sign of poor mitochondrial health, and produced higher amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can harm cells. The oocytes of mice treated to BBP also showed higher cell death and DNA damage. Then, the mice were given 200 mg/kg/day of NMN, which completely reversed all of these effects.

Study on NMN, a substance that has shown promise in preventing reproductive aging

Also, phthalates have been linked in recent research to sarcopenia, the age-related decrease of muscular mass and strength, and the aging of male sperm. The study advises lifestyle modifications to lessen exposure to phthalates and phenol, another endocrine-disrupting chemical present in many consumer products. These interventions include switching out products that are known to contain phenol or phthalates for others.

Even though it could be challenging to estimate each person’s amount of BBP exposure, some meals have been discovered to contain high quantities of BBP. For instance, according to one study, minced meat only had 0.078 mg/kg of BBP but vegetable oil contained 1.69 mg/kg. Therefore, being careful with what we use and eat is vital because these levels of BBP exposure are above or very close to harmful limits.

The findings of this study collectively point to NMN as a potentially effective treatment for phthalate-induced reproductive aging. However, additional studies are required to corroborate these results in humans and ascertain NMN’s long-term effects.

Source:

  • Jiang Y, Wang D, Zhang C, Jiao Y, Pu Y, Cheng R, Li C, Chen Y. Nicotinamide mononucleotide restores oxidative stress-related apoptosis of oocyte exposed to benzyl butyl phthalate in mice. Cell Prolif. 2023 Feb 9:e13419. doi: 10.1111/cpr.13419. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36756972.
  • Journal Reference
  • Moghadam ARE, Moghadam MT, Hemadi M, Saki G. Oocyte quality and aging. JBRA Assist Reprod. 2022 Jan 17;26(1):105-122. doi: 10.5935/1518-0557.20210026. PMID: 34338482; PMCID: PMC8769179.
  • Igarashi H, Takahashi T, Nagase S. Oocyte aging underlies female reproductive aging: biological mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. Reprod Med Biol. 2015 May 9;14(4):159-169. doi: 10.1007/s12522-015-0209-5. PMID: 29259413; PMCID: PMC5715832.
  • Wasielak-Politowska M, Kordowitzki P. Chromosome Segregation in the Oocyte: What Goes Wrong during Aging. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Mar 7;23(5):2880. doi: 10.3390/ijms23052880. PMID: 35270022; PMCID: PMC8911062.
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