According to a study by Pu and colleagues from The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, vesicles secreted from stem cells that have been treated with NMN can help improve heart function, reduce tissue damage, and promote blood vessel formation in rats that have experienced a heart attack. Heart attacks are a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 80% of deaths caused by heart disease. These events are usually caused by a blockage in blood vessels, leading to oxygen deprivation in the heart cells and severe damage. Restoring blood flow and repairing tissue damage quickly is critical in preventing fatalities, and options include surgery or medications like aspirin.
A visual representation shows that artery blockage causes myocardial infarction (heart attack). However, injecting damaged heart tissue with stem cell-derived vesicles that are treated with NMN can reduce heart tissue damage and enhance blood vessel formation.
In the rat model of heart attack, N-V injections have shown promising results in improving heart function, promoting blood vessel formation, and reducing tissue damage. The vesicles that are secreted from the stem cells that have been treated with NMN (N-Vs) are effective in enhancing heart tissue recovery by reducing heart cell death and tissue scarring. These findings suggest that stem cell-derived vesicles, especially when conditioned with NMN, could be a valuable tool in reducing heart damage resulting from a heart attack.
When stem cells are conditioned with NMN (N-EVs), there is an improvement in the recovery of heart function mediated by stem cell vesicles, as shown by an increase in ejection fraction (EF) %. After a heart attack (MI), the ejection fraction of the left ventricle is lower than normal (Sham), and the use of stem cell-derived vesicles (M-EVs) can increase the ejection fraction, indicating an improvement in heart function.
Pu and colleagues discovered that the heart functions best when blood flow is at its highest. To achieve this, blood vessels need to be optimal. In a rat heart attack model, they found that untreated stem cell vesicles increased small artery and capillary density in the heart tissue. In contrast, NMN-treated stem cell vesicles enhanced this even further. This means that NMN can improve the formation of new blood vessels and increase blood flow in damaged cardiac tissue.
Conditioning stem cells with NMN (N-EVs) can enhance the blood vessel formation mediated by stem cell vesicles, as compared to the insignificant increase in a small artery (identified with α-SMA expression, left) and capillary (identified with CD31 expression, right) formation observed during a heart attack (MI) in comparison to normal (Sham). The use of stem cell-derived vesicles (M-EVs) significantly (***) improves blood vessel formation, which is further improved by NMN conditioning.
When cardiac tissue is damaged due to a heart attack, scar tissue and cell death can occur. However, new blood vessel formation can help reduce these problems. In the study, untreated stem cell vesicles reduced the amount of scar tissue, and NMN-treated vesicles reduced it even further. Additionally, normal vesicles reduced programmed cell death, and NMN-treated vesicles reduced it even more. Overall, these findings suggest that NMN can enhance the repair of damaged cardiac tissue through stem cell vesicle therapy.
When someone has a heart attack (MI), their heart can develop more scar tissue (fibrosis) and experience more cell death (apoptosis) than usual. Scientists found that stem cell vesicles (M-EVs) can help improve how heart tissue heals after a heart attack. However, they discovered that conditioning the stem cells with NMN before collecting the vesicles (N-EVs) can improve the healing process. Specifically, using N-EVs enhanced heart tissue remodelling after a heart attack, reducing fibrosis area and apoptosis rate.
When someone has a heart attack (MI), their heart can develop more scar tissue (fibrosis) and experience more cell death (apoptosis) than usual. Scientists found that stem cell vesicles (M-EVs) can help improve how heart tissue heals after a heart attack. However, they discovered that conditioning the stem cells with NMN before collecting the vesicles (N-EVs) can improve healing. Specifically, using N-EVs enhanced heart tissue remodelling after a heart attack, reducing fibrosis area and apoptosis rate.